THEORY OF OPERATION
The grader consists of the following functional systems: engine; power train; air and brake systems; electrical system;
steering and hydraulic systems.
This work package explains how the systems and components of the machine work together. A functional description is
provided for each major component and system.
The 130G Series Grader is an all-purpose, medium sized, wheeled vehicle used for spreading and evening various types
of granular material (dirt, stone, sand, etc.). Power is by a Caterpillar in-line, four-cylinder, direct injected, diesel
engine. Hydraulically operated implements allow blade positioning for forward or backward grading, ditch or
embankment grading, and snow removal. A scarifier allows loosening of compacted material prior to grading. Front
leaning wheel and frame articulation provide maximum maneuverability. Only the 130G model has a sound suppressing
Rollover Protective Structure (ROPS) cab with insulation, heater, and windows, which allows for all-weather operation.
General. The grader is equipped with a Caterpillar 3304 turbocharged diesel engine with four in-line cylinders, generat-
Fuel System. Diesel fuel
is drawn from the tank
by a fuel transfer pump, filtered
by a primary fuel filter, routed
fuel injection pump and secondary filter, and then injected through the fuel injector nozzles into the engine cylinders.
Air is drawn in through dry-type, replaceable filter elements. A dust ejector removes incoming dust from the air and
routes it out through the exhaust system.
Cooling System. Provides coolant to the engine. Coolant is circulated through the engine by a gear-driven water pump.
A hydraulic oil cooler is located in front of the radiator. Engine and transmission oil coolers are mounted on the left side
of the engine.
Lubrication System. The engine lubrication system consists of a gear-driven oil pump, oil filter, oil cooler, and oil pan.
The engine is lubricated by cooled and pressurized oil that is circulated through the engine block and head.
Exhaust System. The
exhaust system removes
exhaust gases from the engine through the
exhaust manifold and turbo-
charger. The gases flow into exhaust pipes and a muffler to the atmosphere above the cab.
Transmission. Six speeds are provided in both forward and reverse. A transmission modulator pedal disengages the
transmission from the drive wheels. The pedal also provides limited movement for close-quarter maneuvering.
Final Drive Assembly. Axle
shafts turn the planetary gears
of the final drive. Final drive
sprockets turn the rear wheel
spindles through drive chains inside the tandem axle housing.
Rear Axle Differential and Lock Differential. A four-wheeled tandem rear axle arrangement houses axle shafts driven
by a lock-unlock equipped differential. The axle shafts turn the final drive sprocket chains through planetary reduction
gears. The sprocket chains then drive the sprocket spindles and wheels.